Sub-station

an eye on airline security technology.

by:Kenwei      2019-08-22
Anyone who has been to the airport is familiar with the instructions given by airport security checkpoints and security personnel: \"Please put your bag in X-
Thunder conveyor belt.
Place the key and any metal items in a plastic box and pass through the metal detector.
\"More and more travelers are getting used to these directions and may not remember air travel without a security checkpoint.
In late 1960 and early 1970, incidents of hijacking of commercial aircraft occurred from time to time.
FAA, 1973 (FAA)
Safety regulations for checking carry-on
Before passengers board the plane, pack bombs and weapons in bags and search for passengers electronically.
Local police are also required to assist in airport security.
The public accepted these new procedures, and the number of hijackings was reduced. When x-
Laser, can detect guns, knives and grenades in the weapons you carry with you
On the bag, the metal detector beeps in front of any metal object large enough to be a weapon. X-
The machine and metal detectors are easy to operate.
Operators are trained, retrained and continuously evaluated and tested by the FAA. Each X-
Test machine and metal detector with anFAA every day
Approved test equipment.
Security personnel at checkpoints are trained in equipment use
FAA regulations and emergency procedures.
While the fight against the hijackers has been successful, the threat to airlines has evolved from hijackers to terrorist bombings, which are more difficult to prevent.
With a small amount of explosives, batteries and timers, the aterrorist can avoid safety checkpoints, metal detectors, and X-
By placing the improvised explosive device in the raymachine in the inspection bag. In early X-
The explosives appear in black and gray tones. Nowadays, X-
The ray machine enables operators to observe color changes, making it easier to identify explosives.
Except for the country-OF-THE-
All American Airlines have established a special international flight safety program. risk countries.
The project was modeled in accordance with the system used by the Israeli airline E1 A1, commonly referred to as the risk analysis system.
This specialized system provides comprehensive security for all aspects of each flight, including loading goods, conducting aircraft searches, monitoring catering services, protecting aircraft, x-
Check all luggage and interview each passenger.
The structure of the interview is testing--
Through survey indicators and observations-
Suspicious passengers.
Then, special safety treatment is carried out for suspicious passengers, and passengers who do not know the situation refuse to transport.
While most American airlines voluntarily introduce a risk analysis system, all American airlines are now subject to FAA regulations.
The risk analysis system has high cost and high labor intensity.
Onemajor American Airlines has more than 1,200 security personnel assigned to the program, costing more than $30 million a year.
While the program provides the highest level of security for American citizens traveling on American Airlines, it creates a competitive disadvantage for foreign airlines due to the cost and intrusive nature of passenger questioning.
So far, the FAA has not asked foreign airlines to implement a similar security plan, including shipping a large number of American citizens to and from the United States.
As mentioned earlier, the risk analysis system includes
In-depth interviews with each passenger.
During the interview, security personnel will check the passenger\'s documents, including air tickets, passports, luggage labels, and check the passenger\'s booking records if necessary.
Other aspects of the interview and security process cannot be discussed in the apublic Forum.
If the security agent determines that a passenger needs a special review, the person will be physically --searched. All carry-
And checked baggage and its contents will be x-rayed.
Luggage will
A thorough inspection of weapons and other dangerous goods. With today\'s X-
Operators are able to expand and mine projects in detail.
Color changes make it easier to identify explosives.
Safety procedures are not limited to passengers. In high-
Risk city, each aircraft is searched before taking off and is protected at any time on the ground.
Checked baggage marked (
Using code that changes every day), x-
Pull the lines and indicate where they are in the hold so that the bags can be removed quickly if necessary.
Once the inspected bag is kept by the security personnel, care and control will remain until the plane leaves.
Similar procedures are followed for goods, catering and dutyfreeitems.
Everything is checked and saved under the care and control of security personnel.
Check the goods and shipping documents.
In addition, the goods are delayed by 24 hours and, if appropriate, background checks are conducted to determine the shipper\'s credibility.
The goods are placed in containers and supervised by security personnel who escort the goods to the aircraft.
Suspicious goods can be checked by hand, x-
Carry out the traction and carry out the decompression chamber to solve the safety problem.
High cost of security procedures and tight timeconsuming.
Extended research is under way for technologies that will be screened to carry
Check your luggage quickly and thoroughly.
Ideally, the device will perform a random screening of passengers and their luggage and achieve 100 per cent success in detecting weapons or explosives.
This utopian device is not yet available.
However, some promising devices are under development and field tests are under way in some cases.
Many new devices have been designed to detect explosive substances by detecting nitrogen.
Explosives are organic compounds composed of carbon, oxygen and a large amount of nitrogen.
Plastic explosives are the choice of terrorists for several reasons.
They are stable and instantly oxidized (
This avoids the need for a strong containment object like a metal tube, which is in X-ray)
, Is twice the plasticity of explosives, and putty.
Plastic explosives are difficult to find because they can be split into thin sheets for arranging luggage or making any shape into a mold.
One of the equipment under test is thermal neutron analysis (TNA)
The machine runs at Gatwick Airport outside London and Washington Dulles International Airport outside Washington, DC.
TNA machine low
Energy neutron interacting with the nucleus of the baggage.
These interactions produce gammarays, which in turn detect nitrogen in explosives.
The TNA system also includes addingon X-
Ray machines used to quantify suspicious conditions detected by TNA in luggage.
Although the TNA machine is promising, it is slow, very large and heavy (14 tons)
About $1 million per machine.
It also has an unacceptable high false alarm rate.
In addition to these problems, only a few machines are needed at an airport to handle the flight of two or three aircraft carriers, which creates space and cost constraints, especially when many American Airlines stop operating and others go bankrupt.
Airlines are not targets of terrorists.
They are substitutes that are easily accessible to terrorists protesting government policy.
Because of this, the government has proposed funding for explosive detection devices.
However, this idea does not seem feasible at this time. Public Law 101-
604 the FAA is required to conduct an in-depth study of the threats to civil aviation and to have new equipment and procedures to address the technical challenges posed by terrorists at all major airports by November 1993.
This is a formal task and the development and evaluation of other devices is in progress.
One of these devices is fast neutron analysis (FNA)system.
It is more expensive than the TNA system and is based on different sources for detecting explosives.
Several different concepts of this system are developing both in the United States and abroad.
Another system is pulse fast neutron analysis (PFNA)system.
In addition to the pulse neutron beam used to detect explosive materials, it is similar to FNA.
So far, only the feasibility of the set is determined.
A lot of research and testing is required before the prototype machine appears.
It\'s also a big, expensive machine that can\'t be used for five to seven years.
Other technologies based on nuclear energy
The explosion-based detection system will include the system of resonance absorption, the generation of related particles, and the reverse scattering of pulsed neutrons.
These systems are all in the early stages of development and it is not yet clear about their capabilities and feasibility.
Other more promising technologies are evaporation detection systems and are commonly referred to as enhanced X-
Raydetection system.
Some German airports and US government facilities are using steam detection systems, both domestically and abroad.
The system, based on gas chromatography, samples molecules in air samples obtained from luggage.
Collectors about the size of amailbox suck in air samples from their luggage.
Then insert the collector into 4-foot-
High console for mixing air samples with ozonein indoors.
Through a process called chemical light, if there is an explosive, there will be a faint light.
The analysis of air samples takes only a few seconds.
Other Steam detection systems in use or under development include gas chromatography, ion migration spectrum, dual-
Phase mass spectrometry and fluorescence immunity analysis. The enhanced X-
Ray detection systems are also expected to be used more directly in an airline or airport environment. The current X-
Ray scanners have been used for years to detect weapons and less complex explosive devices.
More advanced systems have been put into use or are under development.
These include double
Or multi-energy scanner, reverse scattering X-
Ray and computer tomography systems. Another dual-energy X-
A ray system that is tested in airportis based on systems using medical instrument technology.
This technology and high
Technical computer capabilities that allow quick analysis of luggage checked by the machine.
Data processing is equivalent to about 150 desktop computers.
Another promising area for applying technology to aviation safety is the hardening of aircraft.
If an aircraft can be designed to have a minimum level of explosive material, then the technology for detecting checked baggage, cargo, or such material carried with it --
Luggage will be greatly improved and developed more simply.
For example, a machine that detects a 1 pound explosive material will have a high false alarm rate and may not always detect this material of 100 percent.
If the aircraft is able to harden to withstand explosive materials of 2 or 3 pounds, the discovery rate will increase significantly.
Changing the design of the aircraft is a long process.
Term proposition.
However, luggage containers that can withstand explosive devices can be developed in the short term.
Such containers must be light in weight and reasonable in cost.
Protecting the integrity of aircraft and passengers in flight is a topic that requires more attention from the federal government and the aviation industry.
The safety of airlines is complex because the nature of the industry is complex. In 1991, 1.
There are 2 billion passengers traveling by airline around the world.
When considering the baggage carried by each passenger and cargo on board, as well as the catering and all other activities required for each flight to take off, the complexity of route safety is obvious.
Ensuring the safety of each flight is a commemorative task that requires human and technical expertise.
Over the past few years, the US aviation industry has worked closely with the government to ensure that the best equipment and procedures are used to create and maintain the highest level of safety for passengers.
This effort will continue thanks to the commitment of the aviation industry and the government. Homer A.
Boynton is general manager of corporate safety at DALLAS American Airlines.
He is the chairman of Assisi airport and airlines.
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