Abstract: Under the situation that high-tech and technological innovation are becoming more and more prominent, and safety and health technologies will develop into international general rules and technical barriers, the development trend of world packaging machinery is embodied in the development and enhancement of applications including basic technology and safety design. A variety of technologies including technology, hygienic design technology, green design technology and integrated design technology. In the face of existing problems and future development trends, China's packaging machinery should adopt the following development strategies to deal with: first, key development, second, scale development, third, solid foundation, fourth, brand development, and fifth, innovation and development.
Over the past 30 years of reform and opening up, the development of China's packaging machinery has made great achievements, but there are also big problems. In the future, the competition in the world packaging machinery market will become increasingly fierce. For the development of China's packaging machinery, there will be opportunities and challenges. Therefore, in order to ensure that China's packaging machinery can develop at a relatively fast speed, it is necessary to analyze the development advantages of China's packaging machinery industry, recognize its own weaknesses, grasp development opportunities, conform to the development trend of the world's packaging machinery, and carefully formulate coping strategies to reduce The gap between China and the world's packaging machinery powers in terms of technology level, thus transforming from a large packaging country to a packaging power.
1 The development trend of world packaging machinery
Since 2011, the world food and packaging machinery market has shown a fierce competition, and competition will intensify. This kind of competition will mainly reflect two characteristics: First, the role of high-tech and technological innovation is becoming more and more obvious. Second, safety and health technologies will develop into international general rules and technical barriers.
The food and packaging machinery industry is an important market for automation products and technologies. High-tech related to automation, such as highly intelligent CNC systems, encoders and digital control components, microcomputers, power load control and other new equipment will greatly promote the development of the food and packaging machinery industry, making it replace the intermittent production by continuous production. Production, replacing generalized production with specialized production, replacing small and medium-sized production by large-scale production, replacing the quality control of the final product with full-process quality control, thereby achieving continuous production, professional operation, automatic adjustment of food processing and packaging process, Full control and industrial operation. High efficiency, numerical control, flexibility, intelligence, multi-functionality and modularization have become the inevitable trend in the development of food and packaging machinery. At the same time, in today's fast-changing high-tech, technological innovation capability has become the decisive factor in winning the initiative of market competition. Through technological innovation, China's packaging machinery will transform from simple technology to complex technology, from single technology to integrated technology, from traditional technology to high-tech, and finally realize the technological leap of food packaging machinery. At present, developed countries have invested heavily in food and packaging machinery in terms of people, finances, and materials, in an effort to improve their ability to innovate and thus achieve greater economic benefits.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO), based on the need for production safety and food safety, introduced safety and health regulations covering food and packaging machinery, pharmaceuticals and packaging machinery in the early 21st century. These regulations have become food ( Programmatic documents for safety and health requirements in the design and manufacture of pharmaceuticals and packaging machinery. Correspondingly, China issued GB 16798-2007 "Food Machinery Safety and Health" in January 2009. Based on the needs of global mechanical safety and food safety, all countries in the world regard safety and health as an important condition for food and packaging machinery to be in line with international standards, in order to actively prevent accidents that may occur in food and packaging machinery under unsanitary and unsafe conditions. And ultimately avoid the production of unqualified food. Developed countries such as the United States, Europe, and Japan have adopted a large number of technical measures to protect human health, safety, and health. They have set up a large number of non-tariff technical barriers in the formulation of safety, health, and green technology standards. Standard goods and packaging. The “green wave” of the world shows that the key to gaining market competitiveness in the food and packaging machinery market has depended on the ability to transform product technology into standard regulations and technical barriers to gain access to technical commanding heights. Therefore, the development of China's packaging machinery industry must conform to the development trend of the world's food and packaging machinery, and actively adapt to the technical barriers set by the developed countries, and firmly adhere to the international road.
The trend of the world's packaging machinery development is reflected in the future will strengthen the application and research and development of a variety of technologies including basic technology, security design technology, health design technology, green design technology and integrated design technology.
1.1 Basic technology
Packaging machinery is highly automated. Automation technology has been used in packaging lines for more than 50%. The main basic technologies include:
1) Mechatronics technology. It is the application of numerical control technology and intelligent technology to packaging machinery, thereby improving the packaging speed, automation degree, operational reliability and stability of packaging machinery.
2) Microcomputer technology. Each robot of modern packaging machinery is equipped with a separate computer. The computer controls, detects, compensates and adjusts the packaging movements and displays them through the camera. It can also distinguish the thickness of the packaging materials to form an adaptive system. In addition, the replacement of programmable logic controller (PLC) with powerful industrial process control (IPC) has become an inevitable trend in the development of packaging machinery. .
3) Heat pipe technology. The application of this technology can improve the reliability of packaging machinery sealing and adaptability to materials, and can save energy.
4) Supporting components and testing technology. The application of this technology can improve the quality and reliability of the matching electrical and hydraulic components, special pumps, valve products, sensors, photoelectric conversion components, motors, electrical appliances and hydraulic control components, and can carry out various online or offline foreign object detection. , weight review, metal detection, vacuum detection, etc.
5) Computer simulation design technology. This is the technology that China urgently needs to introduce and master in order to change the design method of surveying and mapping. At the same time, advanced design methods such as optimization design, reliability design, and parallel design are needed.
6) Modular technology. In recent years, modular technology has been rapidly developed. Packaging machinery changes due to changes in the shape, size, material, and barrier properties of the packaged object. Therefore, it is mostly a "non-standard device." In design, in order to save materials and reduce design time, a modular approach can be used.
7) Self-diagnostic technology. A major feature of contemporary packaging machinery is high speed. The filling speed of the German beer filling machine can reach 120,000 bottles/h, and the packaging speed of the cigarette packaging machine reaches 12,000 pieces/min. Since high-speed equipment can cause terrible losses in the event of a fault, it must be set up with a self-diagnostic system (also known as a fault analysis system) that automatically diagnoses faults and eliminates them by themselves.
1.2 Safety Design Technology
Problems in safety design techniques have led to frequent casualties in the operation of food and packaging equipment. There are about 300,000 cases in China every year, of which most of them cause burns, broken fingers, broken arms, etc., and some even lead to death. Analysis of the cause, more than 80% of the accidents are caused by design hazards, therefore, it is necessary to start from the design of food and packaging machinery to carry out safety design research on food and packaging machinery. Such research should include analysis of the main influencing factors of safety hazards, conducting risk assessments, proposing measures to eliminate or reduce risks, and designing safety protection devices. In the design, the principles of material selection, design, manufacture and configuration shall comply with the provisions of GB 16798-2007 “Food Machinery Safety and Hygiene”, so that the designed food and packaging machinery can reach a higher level of mechanical safety.
1.3 Hygienic design technology
Health hazards in food and packaging machinery refer to damage caused by migration or microbes to packaged foods and medicines. There are two main reasons for the health hazards: First, due to improper selection of the materials, coatings or packaging materials used in food and packaging machinery, the harmful chemical substances in the materials in contact with food are caused to migrate to the food and cause harm to the human body; Second, due to the unreasonable design of the mechanical structure, it is easy to grow bacteria, or the manual operation during the processing, resulting in the processing of food microbes exceeding the standard. Most of these problems arise from the irrationality of the design process. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out research on food and packaging machinery hygiene design from the design process, analyze the main influencing factors of health hazards, carry out risk assessment, and propose measures to eliminate or reduce health hazards; the design should be in accordance with GB 16798-2007 The requirements for mechanical safety and hygiene are selected from materials, design, manufacture and configuration. Hygienic sensors and actuators help meet food safety and food quality testing requirements.
1.4 Green Design Technology
With the development and implementation of the ISO14000 series of standards, many countries have set up “green technical barriers” to protect their own environment, requiring imported products to be green certified and “green signs”, which has led to greens characterized by green design and green manufacturing. manufacturing. Traditional mechanical design takes less consideration of environmental attributes and food safety attributes. Green design technology starts from system engineering and green concepts, and focuses on the design, manufacture, use, and disposal of food and packaging machinery throughout the life cycle of food and packaging machinery. The material selection, structural design, detachable design, recyclable design, as well as the evaluation of resource and environmental attributes and food safety attributes are systematically studied, and the basic criteria, implementation steps and evaluation methods of green design are proposed to realize the design of food and packaging machinery. The goal of effectively utilizing resources, protecting the ecological environment, and ensuring food safety lays a solid foundation for food and packaging machinery to successfully surpass the “green technical barriers”.
1.5 Integrated Design Technology
On the basis of research on the market demand for food and packaging machinery, we will collect technical information from multi-channels such as defense technology, aerospace technology and machinery manufacturing, and determine the common key technologies and related parameters required for food and packaging machinery. Technology and advanced applicable technology to enhance traditional food and packaging equipment; application of quality assurance design methods and integrated optimization techniques, integration and evaluation of quality assurance elements, to achieve excellent design and evaluation indicators for food and packaging machinery, thereby promoting product upgrading. At present, it is particularly important to develop liquid milk aseptic packaging (filling) technology equipment, automatic filling of continuous vacuum packaging equipment, near-infrared spectroscopy technology equipment, computer vision inspection technology equipment, etc. through integrated design.
On the basis of integrated design and analysis, and based on advanced technology at home and abroad, innovative design should be carried out to inject technical content that is difficult to be imitated and acquired.
2 Development Countermeasures of China Packaging Machinery
In order to comply with the development trend of packaging machinery in the world and improve the competitiveness of China's packaging machinery, we must give full play to the advantages of China's packaging machinery in the domestic market with large market demand and potential market demand abroad, and at the same time, we can rely on high-tech advantages such as domestic aerospace. Efforts have been made to overcome the shortcomings of the current small scale, low technical content, and insufficient R&D investment. We will take practical and effective countermeasures and implement strategies such as solid foundation, key development, scale development, brand development and innovation development to improve the technical level of China's packaging machinery as soon as possible.
2.1 Solid foundation
“Consolidation foundation” refers to the basic work that must be done to adapt to the development trend of packaging machinery in high-tech and safety and health technologies, improve the quality level of packaging machinery and develop new products. These basic work mainly includes: mastering the quality of components and Its reliability testing technology, master material and metallographic heat treatment technology, improve the technical standards.
The components that make up the packaging machinery mainly include industrial computers, numerical control components, electric hydraulic components, special pumps, valve components, sensors, photoelectric conversion components, motors, electrical appliances and hydraulic control components, etc., including the realization of hygiene, safety, energy saving, and reduction. The basic components required for row, low-carbon, and sterilization technologies; the detection technology mainly refers to online or offline detection technologies such as foreign matter detection, weight review, metal detection, and vacuum detection required for packaging machinery. Their quality and reliability determine the quality and technical level of the whole machine.
Material refers to the composition of the material and the level of smelting, while the technology and level of metallographic heat treatment determine the quality, reliability and stability of the packaging machinery. Both of these are referred to by industry experts as "internal medicine" technology for mechanical manufacturing, and more so-called "surgical" mechanical processing technology requires more effort to conduct research.
Technical standards are China's weaknesses. At present, the national standards and industry standards for packaging machinery in China can only cover 20% to 30% of products, and the other 70% to 80% of products are enterprise standards, which makes it difficult to select equipments; The existing standards for food and packaging machinery are mainly product standards, lacking basic standards, method standards, management standards and safety and hygiene standards, thus seriously restricting the applicability of product standards.
In order to improve the technical level of China's packaging machinery, we must conscientiously do a good job of the above-mentioned "solid foundation". At present, we must pay special attention to perfecting and upgrading technical standards, and build a market-oriented, focused, well-structured, and internationally integrated product, including products. Standards, basic standards, method standards, management standards, safety standards, health standards, etc., to promote the transformation of packaging machinery innovation results to technical standards. At the same time, we will cultivate a group of competitive enterprises with leading technology standards and breakthroughs in foreign green technology barriers, thus driving the overall improvement of packaging machinery technology.
2.2 Key development
The packaging machinery as a national key development project is based on the following considerations:
1) The production and technical level of packaging machinery is the key to the transformation of China from a packaging country to a packaging power. The annual output value of China's packaging industry has exceeded RMB 1 trillion in 2009, making it the second largest packaging country in the world after the United States. However, the total output value of the food and packaging machinery industry in 2010 was only RMB 175.1 billion, which is the annual output value of the packaging industry. 17.5%, in a relatively obvious relative weakness, resulting in 60% to 70% of China's packaging machinery demand, especially for high-tech equipment, still need to rely on imports . China's packaging market is huge, and the demand for packaging machinery is also large. Therefore, after the entry into the WTO, foreign packaging machinery invaded and wanted to occupy the commanding heights of the Chinese packaging industry. This is particularly worthy of the Chinese packaging machinery industry's vigilance and response. . Packaging machinery is highly automated, highly intelligent, and has a high technical content. Therefore, the country needs large R&D investment to improve the production and technical level of domestic packaging machinery as soon as possible.
2) Improving equipment manufacturing capacity is the key to China's transition from a manufacturing power to a manufacturing power. The reason is that equipment manufacturing capabilities are at the heart of manufacturing capabilities. The manufacturing industry is mainly composed of light industrial textile manufacturing, resource processing industry and mechanical and electrical manufacturing. The latter is often referred to as the equipment manufacturing industry. Judging whether a country is a manufacturing power can be measured by the proportion of mechatronics manufacturing in manufacturing. At the end of the 20th century, the proportion of machinery and electronics manufacturing in developed countries accounted for 46.4% in Germany, 45.3% in South Korea, 43.63% in Japan, 41.9% in the United States, 39.63% in France, and 37.33% in the United Kingdom. By the beginning of the 21st century, China's machinery and electronics manufacturing industry accounted for only 34.16%, while the textile manufacturing industry accounted for 30.58%, and the resource processing industry accounted for 33.93%. The entire manufacturing industry was light-weighted . The packaging machinery industry is a typical mechanical and electronic manufacturing industry. Therefore, vigorously developing the packaging machinery manufacturing industry and increasing its proportion in the manufacturing industry is also necessary for China to achieve the goal of “manufacturing a strong country”.
3) Packaging machinery is a major export earner. The packaging machinery has high technical content and high profit. Therefore, the export volume of US, Germany, Japan and Italy packaging machinery accounts for 73% of the world's total exports. Among them, Germany's share of world exports is as high as 34%, and Italy's is 27%. The export value of China's packaging equipment is still less than 5% of the total output value, but the import value is almost equal to the total output value. Therefore, after China's packaging machinery raises the technical level, it will expand its export volume and world market share, and the potential for the country to generate foreign exchange will become More. At present, the domestic packaging machinery industry is “big and small, small and small”, like the large scale of domestic combination scales and packaging machines, such as Guangdong Kenwei, Shanghai Soontrue, etc. Guangdong Kenwei’s foreign trade exports are relatively large. The export volume in less than a year is less than 20 million US dollars. The development of China's food packaging is destined to be long.
4) Packaging machinery is “sunrise industry”. Packaging machinery is mainly for packaging services in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Food and medicine are long-term needs of human beings and industries that require continuous development.
In summary, China should list packaging machinery as a key development project of the “Twelfth Five-Year Plan”. As an important economic growth point, China should pay attention to the development of packaging machinery from policies, investments and projects.
2.3 Scale development
Like other enterprises in the national packaging industry, more than 80% of China's packaging machinery enterprises belong to small and medium-sized enterprises, only 18.5% of enterprises with a scale of more than 1,000 people , and 57% of enterprises that produce concurrently. Due to “congenital deficiency” and cross-regional and inter-departmental, it is difficult to make overall planning and macro guidance, and lack of sufficient capital investment. Therefore, many packaging companies are unable to carry out technological transformation and are unable to develop new products. The competitiveness of packaging products and packaging machinery in the market depends on three factors: production cost, variety quality and delivery time. In order to complete the three elements, it is generally necessary to increase investment and technological transformation to be realized, and enterprises without a certain economic scale are difficult to achieve; let alone packaging machinery belongs to digital and intelligent high-tech machinery, which requires more Big investment. China's packaging machinery enterprises can implement joint-stock reform, expand production scale, increase production concentration, and take the road of joint development. To this end, the state or industry should implement the production license and market access system for packaging machinery, as in the implementation of the food production license system and the market-based system (the implementation of the QS mark), to promote the realization of the "scale development" strategy of enterprises. At the same time, in order to ensure the safety, hygiene and greenness of packaging machinery, its production enterprises must implement “good manufacturing practice” (GMP) certification like food companies. At the same time of scale development, China's packaging machinery enterprises should also pay attention to improving the degree of specialized production, and change the production mode of “multi-variety, small batch” to “less varieties, specialization, large quantities”, from the quantity and variety of products. The growth has shifted to the increase in technology content and the formation of brands, and to reduce the number of concurrent production enterprises.
2.4 Brand Development
In the 21st century, the competition in the international food and packaging machinery market has undergone new changes. It is no longer just the competition for the variety and quantity of products in the past, but also the competition of famous brands, high-tech and technical standards. In the market, customers usually only choose products with strong brands. Since the brand has become the key to opening the market, it is imperative to establish a strong brand system. The success of the top 10 packaging machinery companies in the United States depends on brand awareness, sales performance and after-sales service. The American Marketing Association (AMA) defines a brand as: the brand is the sum of intangible assets such as trademark, name, packaging, price, history, reputation, symbol, and advertising style. It identifies a seller or a group of sellers' products or services and distinguishes them from competitors' products or services. Brand is a systematic concept. It not only provides value to customers, but also creates value for enterprises. Brands bring competitive advantages to enterprise products and also bring competitive advantages to enterprises.
To build a corporate brand, China's packaging machinery companies must first determine the trademark and name. A trademark is a distinctive sign that distinguishes the goods it operates from the same or similar products of others. The trademark registrant enjoys the exclusive right to use the trademark and is protected by law. Second, differentiated positioning. Differentiation is the basis of brand premium capability, and technology is a key factor in manufacturing differentiation and improving product quality. Therefore, in order to build a well-known brand, enterprises must strengthen the application of advanced basic technologies, and advanced packaging machinery is built on the optimization and application of these basic technologies; at the same time, it is necessary to increase investment in research and development and build its own core technologies. Form the characteristics of its own brand. Third, through advertising, news, media publicity, spread the brand and increase the brand's visibility. Fourth, we must attach great importance to the application of green technologies such as energy conservation, environmental protection, safety, and sanitation, and implement green manufacturing. Only in this way can we adapt to green technical barriers and exceed their limits, providing strong support for entering the international market.
In China's rapid development of packaging machinery, catching up with the United States, Germany, Japan, Italy and packaging machinery power today, China's packaging machinery industry to establish and strengthen brand awareness is very important. At present, there are some kings in their respective fields, such as Soonture, Kenwei and Ruizhi, which have certain brand effects in China.
2.5 Innovation and development
Innovation is the soul of development. If an enterprise does not have independent innovation products, there will be no market competitiveness, and it will be difficult to form long-term economic benefits. For products with low technical content, the market life is bound to be short. While well-known foreign companies have developed new products through years of innovation, they have established high technical barriers, which can occupy the market for a long time. Therefore, how much a country or a company can make in technological innovation can win much initiative in the market competition of packaging machinery. At present, developed countries attach great importance to the technological innovation of packaging machinery. In addition to giving a large investment in people, finances, and materials, they also tilt on foreign trade and taxation policies, actively support innovative products, and achieve technological leapfrogging.
Innovative methods include original innovation, integrated innovation, and introduction, digestion, and innovation. The key to the transformation from imitative innovation to independent innovation is to inject the technical content that others cannot easily imitate. In order to carry out independent innovation of packaging machinery, China needs to carry out the following work: First, build a national packaging machinery R&D center integrating information, testing, design, testing and transfer, and become the leader of independent innovation of packaging machinery in the country; second, packaging machinery enterprises In particular, large enterprises should increase investment in R&D and innovation, from the original R&D expenditure to 1% of sales to 5% to 10%. Third, we must vigorously cultivate R&D talents for packaging machinery and encourage undergraduate courses in packaging machinery. Professional, master's degree and doctoral degree; Fourth, change the loose form of relying on national projects to temporarily set up R&D team, accelerate the establishment of enterprise-oriented, close integration of production, study and research, with rigorous experimental research and scientific research procedures, and have a long-term mechanism. Innovation system. What is hard to come by is that we have seen some prosperous manufacturers in the domestic packaging machinery industry, represented by Kenwei and Ruizhi. In terms of innovation, we pay great attention to market research and R&D investment. This is a good phenomenon and starting point.
1) 2011-2015 is an opportunity period for China's packaging machinery to accelerate development, but it is also a period in which the world's packaging machinery technology is upgraded and market competition is further intensified. Opportunities and challenges coexist. If China can't grasp the opportunity and improve its technical level and product grade as soon as possible, then China's packaging machinery will further widen the gap with developed countries, and will even be marginalized by the world packaging market, so that it may be excluded from the world packaging market.
2)The main advantage of China's packaging machinery to accelerate development is the demand for domestic large market and foreign potential market; the main weakness is that the scale of the enterprise is too small, the technical equipment is backward, and there is no capital investment. Therefore, it is necessary to implement the five aspects of the strategy proposed in this paper, especially the construction of national packaging machinery R & D center, large enterprises to establish brand awareness, increase investment in research and development, strengthen basic technology, and develop various types in line with international standards. The implementation of measures such as standards is more urgent.
3) The main objective of the “12th Five-Year Plan” of China's packaging machinery is to strive to maintain an annual growth rate of 18.8% in the context of the global financial crisis; the variety development should replace the products that are currently difficult to replace due to large imports; The level of equipment has been significantly improved in terms of technical performance, equipment reliability, safety and hygiene, and the localization rate has been significantly improved.
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