[Abstract] After reviewing the development trend of packaging machinery in the world, the article analyzes the gaps in China and proposes that China should vigorously develop five major strategies for packaging machinery with high technical content and large market demand.
Packaging machinery provides equipment machinery for the packaging industry, affecting the technical level and product grade of various packaging products industry, restricting the development and speed of the packaging industry. China's packaging machinery industry has experienced rapid development due to the development of packaging products industry in the 1990s, with an average annual growth rate of 30% , but due to the late start, low starting point, small scale, China's packaging machinery overall The level is 20 years behind the developed countries ; the current domestic demand is 60% to 70%, especially for the high-tech equipment. Compared with the packaging products industry, packaging machinery is a weak spot in China's packaging industry. After the "WTO accession", the World Packaging Power Congress, with its concentrated capital and advantageous development and innovation capabilities, entered China's packaging machinery market after reducing tariffs in China. If there is no strong countermeasure, the commanding heights of China's packaging industry may be the world's packaging power. Controlled by international capital. To this end, we must analyze the development trend of international packaging machinery, find out the gaps in China, study development strategies, and attach great importance to the development of China's packaging machinery industry.
1 The development trend of world packaging machinery
1.1 The degree of automation continues to increase
Increasing the degree of automation is the most important trend in the development of packaging machinery. The United States, which has the highest variety and output in the world, attaches great importance to the close integration of packaging machinery and computers, realizes electromechanical integration control, and applies automated operation procedures, data collection systems, and automatic inspection systems to packaging machinery. Japan is longer than microelectronics technology to control packaging machinery, effectively promoting unmanned operation and automation. Germany, which is a world leader in metrology, manufacturing and technical performance, also places a high priority on improving automation. A few years ago, when designing German packaging machinery systems, automation technology accounted for only 30% of the entire system operation and operation, and now accounts for more than 50%. Its automation design has two main features:
a. Each robot is controlled by a separate computer. A packaging machine needs to be completed by multiple robots in order to complete complex packaging operations. When the packaging operation is completed, under the information and monitoring of the camera controlled by the computer, the robot completes the specified actions according to the instructions issued by the robot to ensure the quality of the package;
b. High resolution capability for material and thickness. In the packaging process, the thickness and material changes of the packaging material are not easily discernible to the human eye. Therefore, a computer-controlled camera and detector are used on the packaging machine to distinguish the thickness of the packaging material and the change of the material, and display it on the display screen. At the same time, the machine changes the relevant parameters and the number of revolutions according to the change of the material after the separation, and the control works in the optimal state.
1.2High productivity, high reliability
The world's four major packaging machinery, such as the United States, Japan, Germany and Italy, attach great importance to the market and user needs, and increase the number of machines and increase productivity as an important indicator of design pursuit. Germany's current beverage filling speed can reach as high as 1200 bottles / h, cigarette packaging 12000 / min, set the bag, weighing, filling, vacuuming, sealing and other processes in one of the world's highest speed tea packaging machine speed of 350 bags /min.
An important way to increase productivity is to increase the speed, but increasing the speed of the machine is a complicated problem; the higher the speed, the lower the cost per piece of production, the higher the area of the factory, and the higher the failure rate. Reduced, so the best combination of the two should be sought; the increase of the machine speed will also have an impact on the material, reliability, performance and life of other components. In general, increasing the speed by 15% to 20% will bring a series of Complex problems; not to mention the motor speed is limited, can not think how fast. In addition to increasing the speed, productivity can be solved from another channel.
a.Use continuous work, or multi-station multi-head work. There are two types of packaging machinery: intermittent and continuous. They should be designed to work continuously to increase productivity. One machine can also design multi-station or multiple production lines to produce the same product or different specifications. The series of products, but must improve reliability. The Italian production of low-dose granule packing machine adopts mechanical drum type metering, continuous sealing and cutting, one machine multi-station, and the packaging speed can reach 120 bags/min;
b. Reduce scrap rate and provide a fault analysis system. The loss caused by waste products is the biggest, not only the loss of products, but also the loss of materials. Therefore, we must do our utmost to reduce the loss of waste products. The packaging machinery should also be set up as a fault analysis system for maintenance services, that is, modal analysis to find faults. Or remote diagnosis through Inter network to meet customer needs. In the future, packaging machinery will be further intelligent, that is, the equipment itself will find faults and solve the faults themselves. Reduced scrap rate and failure rate, effectively ensuring productivity improvement;
c. Integrate product machinery with packaging machinery. Many products require the end of production to be packaged, which also helps to increase the productivity of the product. For example, the chocolate production equipment and packaging equipment produced in Germany are controlled by one system. The key to the integration of the two is to solve the problem of matching productivity. It is often the bottleneck of packaging machinery, so it is necessary to provide two types of equipment that can match productivity. The packaging machinery powerhouse also pays great attention to improving the reliability and stability of packaging machinery. The first is to formulate product reliability standards and processing specifications, strictly enforce them in production; and earnestly handle the processing of supporting basic parts such as machine, electricity, gas and liquid. quality. The reliability of packaging machinery is an important indicator of product quality and product life. The reliability and quality of basic components are an important guarantee for the reliability and quality of the whole machine.
1.3 good flexibility and flexibility
With the increasing competition in the market, the cycle of product renewal has become shorter and shorter, such as the production of cosmetics, three years, even a quarter, the production volume is very large, so the packaging machinery is required to have good flexibility and Flexibility makes the life of a packaging machine much longer than the life cycle of a product in order to meet economic requirements. Many experts predict that multi-purpose, high efficiency, simplification, combination, mobility, smaller size, flexibility and flexibility will be important trends in the development of packaging machinery in the future. In order to make the packaging machinery have good flexibility and flexibility, and to increase the degree of automation, a large number of microcomputer technology, modular technology and unit combination are adopted. In order to adapt to changes in the variety of packaging products and packaging types, the flexibility and flexibility of packaging machinery and equipment often appear in the following three aspects:
a. Quantitative flexibility. That is, it can pack a single product, and can also adapt to the packaging of different batch products;
b. Construction flexibility. The whole equipment is composed of units, and one or several units can be used to adapt to product changes;
c. Flexibility in supply. Unit combination, uniting together, such as candy packaging machine, on a common basis, combining different units, there are three inlets, four different folding packaging forms, so that one machine can be packed at the same time 8 ~10 different kinds of candy, operated by multiple robots, under the supervision of a camera, directing its action, which kind of candy can be packaged for packaging; the product is changed, just change the program in the camera, Thereby giving the device good flexibility and flexibility;
d. Lightweight and compact. In the 21st century, high-tech technologies such as electronics, computers, lasers, robots, and robots are widely used to transform the current heavy-duty, rigid, and specialized packaging production lines into powerful, fast, flexible, and compact packaging production equipment. Flexible filling, wrapping and sealing of many types and sizes of packaging.
1.4Focus on the complete set and matching
The completeness and compatibility of the packaging machinery and equipment can be related to the function of the packaging machinery. Only the mainframe production is concerned, and the completeness of the supporting equipment will not be realized, and the functions of the packaging machinery will not be exerted. Therefore, the development of supporting equipment to maximize the function of the host is a crucial factor in improving the market competitiveness and economy of the equipment.
Germany's packaging machinery design, attaches importance to the complete system solution considering the structural and economical aspects of the production enterprise according to the user's needs, and uses the computer simulation technology to demonstrate the operation to the user, and solicit comments to make modifications. In the provision of automatic line or production line equipment for users, the integrity of the package is emphasized. Whether it is high-tech added value or simple equipment, it is provided according to the matching requirements.
German packaging machinery manufacturers will also provide complete sets of equipment as their goal. Such as a beverage filling line, there are more than 200 micro-computer parts, there are many pipelines, display screens, there are more than 100 software programs to control various packaging actions, in order to meet the productivity of 1200 bottles / h, there must be two lines of work, Therefore, the production of the entire beverage filling line takes up about half of the area of the football field. They require that all of these equipment be completed in a single manufacturer or company system to provide a complete set of equipment to the user.
1.5 Extensive use of advanced design methods and techniques
In order to adapt to the ever-changing requirements of the market, the world's packaging machinery powerhouses strive to improve design quality, shorten design cycles, and extensively adopt advanced design methods and design techniques. Advanced design methods include optimized design, reliability design, industrial design and parallel design (concurrent engineering). Advanced design techniques have been commonly used in computer-aided design (CAD), which is known as “Drawing board project” in China; computer simulation design technology is being promoted and applied. In order to speed up the development of new products, German packaging machinery design has generally adopted computer simulation technology, that is, various machine elements into the computer with data inventory, digitized drawings and input into the computer, the computer can be automatically synthesized into a three-dimensional model. Then input the actual production data and indicators, and input various possible faults. The computer 3D model can be operated according to the real working conditions, demonstrating what the productivity can be achieved. How much waste is there? Whether it can match production, where is the bottleneck? Let the customer know at a glance according to the image and curve displayed on the display, and modify the model according to the customer's opinion. Computer synthesis is fast, so modifications can be quick and easy until the customer or designer is satisfied. The use of computer simulation design technology has greatly shortened the development and design cycle of packaging machinery. Packaging machinery design must not only pay attention to its function and efficiency, but also pay attention to its economy. But economics is not entirely the cost of mechanical equipment itself, but more importantly, operating costs, because equipment depreciation costs only account for 6% to 8% of the cost , the other is the operating costs.
2 The gap between China's packaging machinery
Compared with the world's packaging machinery powers, the overall level gap in China is 20 years, which is reflected in the following main aspects.
2. 1 Quantity and variety aspects
According to the statistics of the World Packaging Machinery Association (COPAMA), the global packaging machinery sales in 1997 was 18 billion US dollars . In 1998, China's packaging machinery output value was only 1.1 billion US dollars; currently, more than 6,000 packaging machinery can be produced abroad. In China, about 3,000 species can be produced in China ; China's food packaging rate is only 5%, while mechanical packaging is widely used in the United States, Japan, and Europe, and the food packaging rate is as high as 90%, 80%, and 70%, respectively. Therefore, in terms of quantity, variety and packaging rate, the production and demand of packaging machinery in China is very contradictory, mainly relying on import solutions. According to the market forecast for the packaging machinery market, the annual growth rate of global packaging machinery demand is about 5.3 percent, and it is expected to reach 29 billion US dollars by the year 2000 . The market demand is huge, and the demand for China and India is the most. fast. If we do not take strong development countermeasures, the contradiction between production and demand in China's packaging machinery market will be further expanded, relying on foreign imports to a greater extent.
Due to the small size of the company and the shortage of funds, the production of high-tech products is rarely seen. High-tech large-scale equipment, such as wide-format high-speed corrugated box production line, aseptic packaging large-scale high-speed beverage filling machine, multi-function information labeling machine, and combined electronic scales all depend on imports. Since many packaging machinery in China have not yet established product reliability standards, some standards are also set too low, and the performance of basic components of machine, electricity, liquid and gas is unstable, which affects the reliability of the packaging machinery produced, and has a short life span. Affected product quality. Therefore, in China's packaging machinery products, only about 5% can reach the level of the developed countries in the early 1990s, 20% of the products can only compare with the products of the 1980s, and the remaining 60% can only reach 70. The level of the age. Of course, there are also a number of potential stars in the future packaging industry such as Guangdong Kenwei, Shanghai Soontrue, and Ruizhi. Guangdong Kenwei Intelligent Machine Co., Ltd. has a great influence in the field of combination scales. Production is already a leader in China. Wenzhou Ruizhi Machinery Co., Ltd. has become the main production base for bag packaging machines.
2. 2 Quality and technical content
Compared with developed countries, the overall backwardness of packaging machinery in China is mainly reflected in quality and technology. At present, the overall production status is simple, low-tech products, high-tech added value, high productivity products; general machinery, special requirements, special material processing and packaging machinery; single machine, complete assembly line, complete The matching is especially poor; heavy production and processing, light research and development, and few innovative products developed independently.
2. 3 Export earnings
Due to the huge world packaging market and the large demand for packaging machinery, in the four major packaging machinery countries, the export value of packaging machinery accounts for a large proportion of the total output value. According to statistics in 1998, China's packaging machinery exports reached USD 0.45 billion, accounting for only about 4% of the total output value of the year. China's export packaging machinery products have low added value, mostly low-level consumable products, while developed countries' export products are mostly high-tech complete sets of production line equipment, which is also a significant gap in China.
3 Development Countermeasures of Packaging Machinery in China
3. 1 Implementing the strategy of “revitalizing packaging machinery and equipment manufacturing”
a.From the perspective of market demand, with the world commodity economy becoming more and more prosperous, the world packaging market is huge. Only after China’s accession to the WTO, GDP will be doubled in 2000 to reach US$200 billion in 2010, and the corresponding packaging market will be large. At least RMB 5,000 to RMB 600 billion will be required, which will require a huge market demand for packaging machinery. According to experts' prediction, the global demand for packaging machinery will grow at an annual rate of about 5.3 percent. In 2005, it will reach 29 billion US dollars. In 2010, it will be close to 40 billion US dollars, of which China and India will have the largest share. Therefore, the demand for the packaging machinery market, both domestic and international markets are huge;
b. If China wants to become a "manufacturing power", it will take several generations to go forward and hundreds of millions of people work hard. At present, according to the industrial added value, in 1998, China's manufacturing industry has ranked fourth in the world after the United States, Japan, and Germany , and now it is proposing to fight for the goal of "making a strong country." From the manufacturing power to the manufacturing power, the key is to improve the core of manufacturing capabilities - equipment manufacturing capabilities. The manufacturing industry is mainly composed of three parts: light industrial textile manufacturing, resource processing industry and mechanical and electrical manufacturing. The latter is the equipment manufacturing industry. It can usually measure whether the mechanical and electronic manufacturing industry accounts for the manufacturing power. In 1996, for example, the United States was 41.99%, Japan was 43.63%, Germany was 46.4%, France was 39.63%, Britain was 37.33%, and Korea was 45.3%. In China, in 2001, the mechanical and electronic manufacturing industry only accounted for 34.16%, and textile manufacturing accounted for 30. 58%, resource processing industry accounted for 33.93%, and the entire manufacturing industry was light. The packaging machinery industry occupies a certain proportion in the machinery and electronics manufacturing industry. In the United States, except for heavy equipment such as power generation equipment, metallurgical petrochemical equipment and automobile production equipment, packaging machinery accounts for 1.2% of the entire equipment manufacturing industry . Therefore, vigorously developing the packaging machinery industry and increasing the proportion of the equipment manufacturing industry in the manufacturing industry are necessary for China to achieve the goal of "making a strong country";
c. From the development of the packaging industry, China's packaging industry has achieved leap-forward development in the past 20 years. It has been increasing at an annual average rate of more than 18%. In 2001, the total output value reached 237.6 billion yuan, and it is gradually becoming a “packaging country”. However, from the inside of the industry, the product industry is developing rapidly, and the packaging industry including packaging machinery and packaging raw materials is relatively slow to develop, which has become a weakness of China's packaging industry. In order to change the status quo of relying on foreign countries, it has occupied the commanding heights of its own packaging industry. If the packaging industry can develop independently, it must also vigorously develop the packaging machinery industry.
3. 2 Intensive integration of packaging machinery enterprises and implementation of “joint development” strategy
China's packaging machinery enterprises are mostly small and medium-sized enterprises. The dispersion, small scale and low production concentration are obvious weaknesses. According to statistics, there are more than 6,000 food packaging machinery manufacturers, of which more than 2,000 are not stable enough, output value and sales. There are only a dozen companies with more than 100 million yuan, and only 50 companies with annual sales of more than 30 million yuan. Their total sales are only 8 billion yuan, and the production concentration is only 20.66% . The competition in packaging products and packaging machinery depends on the three elements of cost, quality and delivery time. This is generally achieved by increasing investment and technological transformation. It is difficult to achieve a business without a certain economic scale. . "Small but complete" is no way out. Only through intensive integration and the path of "joint development" can China's packaging machinery industry grow and develop, and it can compete in the international and domestic markets. This is China's development of packaging machinery. An important prerequisite for emerging industries. The implementation of the "joint development" strategy must be combined with the internal system reform of the enterprise.Most of China's existing packaging machinery enterprises are state-owned enterprises. Under the market competition environment, it is difficult for state-owned enterprises to achieve clear property rights and separate government and enterprises. Therefore, it is necessary to operate according to the modern enterprise system and gradually transition to investment diversification. A joint-stock company with a large scale will be built. The implementation of the "joint development" strategy will also be combined with the acceleration of the "please come in" and "go out" steps. To develop high-tech and high-grade packaging machinery, we must seize the opportunity of “joining the WTO”, actively introduce, digest and absorb new technologies, select some basic regions or domestic leading enterprises, and establish a number of joint-stock large groups with multinational packaging machinery groups. Drive the development of the domestic packaging machinery industry. At the same time, we must continue to strengthen exports, export different grades to different types of regions, and expand the market share for the packaging machinery needed by the local market, and strive to make packaging machinery an export-oriented foreign exchange product in China. To implement the "joint development" strategy, we must also attach importance to the implementation of specialized division of labor within the company or group. Practices at home and abroad have shown that specialized division of labor is an important condition for the use of specialized technology to continuously improve and improve product quality and continuously improve the technical content of products.
3. 3 Implementing a “compounding technology foundation” strategy
Packaging machinery is a high-tech machine that integrates many high-tech industries. The United States, Japan, Germany, Italy and other countries actively introduce new technologies in various fields and continuously develop new packaging machinery varieties. Therefore, China's packaging machinery manufacturing enterprises and research institutes Institutes and institutions must strengthen research on the basic technical and technical standards of these packaging machinery and consolidate the technical foundation.
3. 3. 1 Packaging machinery basic technology
a.Mechatronics technology. The goal is to improve the automation and operational reliability and stability of packaging machinery;
b. Microcomputer application technology. Microcomputer control The system, detection, compensation, adjustment, display and other technologies are applied to the control and monitoring of the packaging machinery to complete the action, to improve the reliability and intelligence of the packaging machinery operation;
c. Heat pipe technology. It is used to improve the quality, reliability and adaptability of packaging machinery seals, and save energy;
d. Basic supporting technology. Supporting electrical and hydraulic components, special pumps, valve products, sensors, photoelectric conversion components, motor, electrical and hydraulic control components quality assurance technology; and a variety of online or offline testing equipment, such as foreign object detection, weight review, metal detection, Development of equipment and technology for vacuum testing;
e. Modern design technology. Including computer-aided design (CAD), computer simulation design, optimization design, reliability design, industrial design and parallel design, and continuously improve the design level of packaging machinery;
f. Modular technology. Modular design to improve the flexibility of the packaging line and the operational level of the production system;
g. Modern manufacturing technology. We will vigorously promote the application of CAD/CAM technology to improve the technology level, material surface treatment, quality inspection and material adaptability.
3. 3. 2 Packaging Machinery Standard
High-quality packaging machinery must set high-quality standards, standards should be in line with international standards, including product technical performance standards, product reliability standards, product environmental performance standards, product processing and testing specifications; packaging machinery companies must be based on international Standard requirements, efforts to pass the quality assurance system ISO9000 and environmental management system ISO14000 certification. Only in this way can we obtain an international passport to improve market competitiveness.
3. 4 Implementing the “Fist Product” Strategy
To develop packaging machinery, it is necessary to conduct in-depth market research to understand the domestic and international market demand and the development of packaging machinery. Industry associations should develop a guiding product development plan for packaging machinery and implement the “fist product” strategy. Industrial developed countries have had successful experience in this area: the United States is known for its mechatronic packaging machinery, especially for corrugated (board) box processing machinery; Germany is leading the world with metering packaging machinery, and Japan is good at applying microelectronics technology. In the control of the packaging machine. There are three factors to consider when developing a key development plan for a packaged product:
a. Market demand. Domestic and foreign markets have different types, different grades, different levels of advancement, and different economic endurance requirements for packaging machinery. After deepening the market demand, we must formulate key product development plans to be marketable.
b. In line with the development trend of the world packaging machinery. The general trend of packaging machinery in the world is to improve automation, increase productivity, improve flexibility, increase the technical content and advanced level. When formulating the development strategy of China's packaging machinery “fist product”, we must focus on this trend, especially the big one. Industrial groups and research and development institutions should also target this;
c. Consider the need for new packaging materials. Packaging has its unique effect in the booming commodity market economy. One of the important factors is the constant innovation of packaging materials, which leads to continuous renovation of packaging structure, grades, colors and varieties. Changes in packaging materials also cause changes in packaging machinery. Packaging machinery can improve the basic economic benefits for specific materials and specific materials. A major feature of the US packaging machinery industry is the combination of packaging materials and systematic sales with packaging materials. They develop new products based on packaging materials to ensure technological leadership, and at the same time, after obtaining strong capital backing, they have invested. The main body can continuously develop and innovate. This is also my country’s development plan or war. Slightly absorb it.
According to the opinions of relevant departments, the following products can be used as reference for the development of packaging machinery development plans or strategies:
a. Deep processing packaging machinery for agricultural products. In 2002, the State Economic and Trade Commission proposed that in order to solve the problem of “agriculture, rural areas and farmers”, it is necessary to vigorously develop packaging machinery or processing and packaging integrated machinery for deep processing of agricultural products;
b. Packaging products and packaging container processing machinery. Including multi-layer wide-width high-strength corrugated board and carton processing equipment; pulp molding machinery; metal cans (steel three-piece and two-piece cans) packaging container processing equipment; plastic hollow container processing equipment and mold design and manufacturing technology, PET system Bottle system; 10 groups, 12 groups, double drop microcomputer control glass forming equipment, lightweight bottle production and processing equipment;
c. Direct packaging machinery. There are complete sets of beer and beverage equipment, high-speed, low-loss, accurate measurement, automatic detection, gland labeling and automatic large-scale complete sets of equipment. The scale will focus on 50,000 tons/year and 100,000 tons/year. Vacuum and ventilation packaging equipment and equipment, focusing on 1 to 10kg bag capacity and continuous vacuum packaging equipment and high-efficiency ventilation packaging equipment for gas proportional filling; sterile liquid and semi-liquid food packaging equipment; Bag, multi-row, high-speed bag 2 filled with 2 sealing packaging machinery, development of container molding 2 filling 2 sealing and vacuum, aseptic technology as one of the multi-functional packaging machinery; wrap, sealing packaging machine, including shrinkage, stretching, Knitting, folding, winding, wrapping machinery and high-frequency heat sealing, pulse, electromagnetic induction, laser, cold sealing, ultrasonic and hot air sealing equipment; fruit and vegetable, daily necessities, industrial materials and other forms of bundling machinery;
d. Packaging and printing machinery. High-speed multi-color flat printing machine; flexographic printing equipment; flexographic printing and post-press processing (painting, bronzing, die-cutting, indentation, etc.) combined unit; flexographic printing and offset printing, screen printing combined unit.
3. 5 Strongly advocate technological innovation and implement the strategy of “integrated innovation”
The key to the competitiveness of manufacturing industry is the ability of technological innovation. As an emerging industry, China's packaging machinery should be based on the world's packaging machinery, and should pay more attention to innovation. There is no brand with independent property rights, no patents of its own intellectual property rights, and emerging industries cannot develop. of. To promote technological innovation requires three links: one is talent, the other is input, and the third is strategy. Talents must be trained and cultivated. Talents must be trained in ability, that is, learning ability, coordination ability, innovation consciousness and ability, and vocational skills. At the same time, an environment or culture needs to be created. German companies attach great importance to corporate culture and respect talents. Respecting engineers, quality, and credibility have formed an excellent trend, which has enabled German products to go global and enjoy a high reputation. Investment is an important prerequisite for innovation. The successful experience of industrial powers shows that enterprises investing in research and development account for 1% of sales, enterprises are difficult to survive, 2% can barely maintain, and 5% are competitive, and many of China The average level of packaging machinery enterprises is less than 1%, so the products produced are difficult to be innovative and competitive. In addition to introducing innovative strategies, imitating innovation strategies combined with breakthroughs, innovation strategies are more important to integrate innovation strategies.The so-called integrated innovation refers to the creative integration of new knowledge and new technologies that have been acquired, driven by market demand, to create new products, new processes and new technologies in a system integration manner to meet the evolving needs. . Integrated innovation is an innovative way of low risk, low cost, and short cycle, but with great commercial value, which can be a breakthrough in achieving technological leapfrogging. Carrier rockets, Boeing 747 aircraft, household appliances, machining centers, etc. are mostly products of integrated innovation. In order to realize the innovation of packaging machinery technology, China should rely on integrating good ideas and innovative strategies, and raise it into theory and strategy. On the basis of trying to keep up with the general trend of the development of packaging machinery in the world and grasping the technical foundation, Introduce some existing new technologies, such as microwave technology, heat pipe technology in aerospace industry, magnetic technology, microelectronic control technology, information processing technology, photoelectric and chemical sensing technology, laser cutting technology, new material technology, and biotechnology. In the packaging machinery, we have continuously developed new products with high technical content, good performance and advanced technology.
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