Abstract: The automation of food packaging machinery is conducive to improving the productivity of equipment, meeting people's growing needs of life, and ensuring the consistency and safety of food packaging. It is pointed out that to realize the automation of food packaging machinery, it is necessary to consider issues including controllers, sensors, servo drive technology, human-computer interaction interface and network technology. At the same time, from the development trend of food packaging machinery automation, it is necessary to strengthen the numerical control of equipment, equipment Research on the integration of information and the intelligentization of equipment fault diagnosis.
Food packaging machinery refers to machinery that can complete all or part of the product and food packaging process. The packaging process includes the main processes of filling, wrapping, sealing, and related front and rear processes, such as cleaning, stacking and disassembly. In addition, the packaging also includes the measurement or the process of two stamps in the package. Food packaging machinery has its own characteristics: 1) a wide variety, different functions, fast update. At present, the number of packaging machinery in the world has reached about 2,000, which does not include some auxiliary machinery and packaging materials machinery, packaging machinery processing machinery. With the continuous increase of social products, the transformation of packaging materials and packaging technology, the sports department of packaging institutions is rapidly updated and developed to a higher level of technology. 2) The packaging machinery is complex, requires precise movement, many processes, and high speed. There are many factors affecting its structural performance (such as the size, shape, packaging material, quality of the package, packaging: l: art, etc.) Packaging machinery is designed and manufactured with high requirements (such as accuracy, stiffness and wear resistance).
1 The necessity of automatic control of food packaging machinery
The product and packaging machinery industry has been in the industry for more than 20 years, compared to the food industry, or a new industry. At present, the domestic food packaging machinery enterprise combination and mechatronics productivity is low, most food packaging machinery enterprises mainly produce single machine, low production efficiency, high energy consumption, poor stability and reliability, less control technology and automation technology applications. These years are a period of rapid development of technology in the world. New technologies are constantly being applied in the industry. The foundation of the domestic industry is weak, and the strength of technology and scientific research is insufficient. Its development is relatively lagging behind, which has dragged the food and packaging industry to some extent. Hind legs. With the rapid improvement of people's living standards, the development of the food industry is becoming more and more huge. In order to meet the ever-changing consumer demand, the following requirements are put forward for food packaging machinery: 1) The higher the production efficiency of food packaging machinery, the better. 2) The food packaging machinery has high flexibility and flexibility, which can effectively ensure that the packaging machinery can standardize and standardize the packaging according to the requirements of the packaged articles and the packaging materials, and meet the requirements of the packaging. 3) The failure of the food packaging machinery during the work process should be quickly eliminated. 4) Food packaging machinery has automatic identification function. 5) The packaging process of food packaging machinery should achieve green packaging. 6) Ensure the safety and hygiene of the food production and packaging process.
Thus, food packaging machinery automation, particularly automatic packaging line with a high degree of flexibility, not only reflects the development of modern production, but can also enable enterprises to obtain huge economic benefits.
2 Ways to achieve automatic control of food packaging machinery
Automation technology can effectively improve the competitiveness of food packaging machinery at home and abroad, which is of great significance to the development of China's food packaging machinery, and is the only way for the development of China's food packaging machinery.
2.1 Food packaging machinery control method
From the production to the packaging of food, the whole process can adopt three kinds of control methods: open-loop control, food packaging machinery with low product quality and packaging requirements, this way can be used. Low cost and high reliability are its advantages. Closed-loop control, using various sensors installed on the food packaging machinery to detect the working state of the device, and feedback the detected information to the controller of the device to achieve closed-loop control. For food packaging machinery with high product quality and packaging requirements, this method can be used. Semi-closed loop control, using sensors installed at certain locations on the food packaging machinery to detect the working state of the equipment, these detected information only indirectly reflects the working state of the equipment. For food packaging machinery with high product quality and packaging requirements, semi-closed loop control is the main choice.
2.2 Controller on food packaging machinery
Automation control products have been gradually applied in the food packaging machinery industry. As far as the controllers currently used in food packaging machinery can be divided into the following categories, ':1) a simple relay circuit is used, and the device is controlled by buttons, the device function is fixed, the flexibility is poor, and the automation level is low. . 2) Using the powerful sequential control and logic control functions of the programmable logic controller (PLC) to control the food packaging machinery, the reliability and flexibility of the equipment are greatly improved; at the same time, in order to facilitate the operator to operate the equipment, adopt the human Machine interactive graphical interface (HMI), good interactivity, the automation level of food packaging machinery has been rapidly improved, which is also a widely used method in domestic food packaging machinery. 3) The maturity of bus technology makes it possible to use fieldbus technology such as PROFIBUS-DP, CC-LINK and DEVI-CENET, remote I/O technology and network communication technology on food packaging machinery. This brings the advantages of automation products to a certain extent, which facilitates the unmanned operation of the entire production line and the seamless connection of the transmission and testing of the equipment. 4) Using the computer as the main control machine, PLC and other industrial computers as the field controller to manage the equipment.
At the same time, the application of PackML technology in food packaging machinery makes the food packaging machinery automation technology further standardized, control interface standardization, improve equipment flexibility and market adaptability.
2.3 Drive technology on food packaging machinery
Food packaging machinery has many actions, fine movements and fast speeds, and each movement must be coordinated during the working process of the equipment in order to achieve precise position control of the equipment and strict speed synchronization of each part. Traditional food packaging machinery generally uses a main motor as a power source, through complex mechanical transmission, to achieve each sub-action. The entire mechanical structure is very cumbersome, the failure rate is high, and it is difficult to maintain or repair the equipment. Applying advanced servo drive technology to food packaging machinery can streamline the mechanical transmission of the entire equipment. For example, the application of three-axis linkage or multi-axis linkage servo drive technology on food packaging machinery can not only ensure the reliable and efficient operation of the equipment, but also simplify the mechanical transmission mechanism of the whole equipment. The servo motors commonly used in food packaging machinery include stepping motors, DC motors and AC motors. The speed control of the equipment can be realized by the subdivision technology of stepping motors, the PWM technology of DC motors, and the frequency conversion technology of AC motors.
Servo drive technology is mainly used in food conveying, loading and unloading, palletizing, depalletizing, marking and other processes. According to the servo drive technology used in food packaging machinery, it can be divided into high, medium and low grades, which corresponds to the control method adopted by food packaging machinery, which is beneficial to the product upgrade of food packaging machinery.
2.4 Sensors on food packaging machinery
To automate food packaging machinery, it is essential to install sensors on the equipment. For example, in the monitoring, filling and packaging, mixing and processing, cooling and heating, cleaning, packaging and other processes of food and beverage storage tanks, sensors are used. Sensors applicable to food packaging machinery include inductive sensors, pressure sensors, photoelectric sensors, capacitive sensors, etc. 6-7. Guangdong combination weigher field, there is a large-scale manufacturing enterprise, is intelligent machines Ltd. Guangdong Kenwei Intellectualized Machinery Co.,Ltd., this enterprise product line width and deep, like the above-mentioned four types of sensors are used in the product line, and each class is larger using amplitude.
3 The development direction of food packaging machinery automation
3.1 Numerical control of food packaging machinery
Applying the successful experience of developing CNC machine tools to the design and development of food packaging machinery, using digital control, the application program can control the packaging process and packaging action of food packaging machinery, improve the flexibility and adaptability of equipment use, and help to improve food. Equipment value of packaging machinery.
3.2 Information integration of food packaging machinery
CAD technology has been widely used in engineering. Applying CAD technology to food packaging machinery can greatly shorten the design and development cycle of equipment. In the design process, ergonomics can be applied, taking into account the convenience of people's operation and repeated design. Results CAE software was used to optimize the performance and structure to meet the requirements of green environmental protection. CAPP technology was used to standardize the various parts of the product, encode the parts, and process the processing for each type of parts. In the knowledge base, in the manufacturing process of the product, CAM technology can be applied to simulate the machining process of the parts and the generation of the NC machining code, to realize the virtual manufacturing of the product or to apply the rapid manufacturing equipment of the CNC machining technology. Food packaging machinery and equipment from the market demand and research, to the final equipment repair and maintenance process can be unified into CIMS. The use of CAX technology in food packaging machinery is conducive to adapt to the rapid and ever-changing needs of the market.
3.3 Food packaging machinery monitoring and fault diagnosis intelligent
In order to improve the automation of food packaging machinery and ensure the utilization and productivity of equipment, it is necessary to establish a fault diagnosis and monitoring system for food packaging machinery. On the basis of extensive collection of fault phenomena, fault causes and fault locations that occur during the operation of the equipment, a fault diagnosis system for the equipment is established. Real-time monitoring of equipment using a multi-sensor information fusion monitoring system. When the problem is discovered, the equipment fault diagnosis system can be used to quickly help the user to identify and solve the fault by combining intelligent forward reasoning and reverse reasoning. Enterprises can easily realize remote monitoring and equipment fault diagnosis and automatic elimination by using network technology, reduce manual participation, and ensure that there is no human contact and pollution in the production of food packaging machinery, and the product quality is uniform and uniform. Health and Safety. At the same time, with the existing commercial network, equipment manufacturers can easily realize the monitoring, diagnosis and modification of the production line in different places, and improve the competitiveness of their products in the market.
During the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" period, the total output value of food packaging machinery is expected to exceed 400 billion yuan. Behind the rapid development of food packaging machinery, a large number of high-tech equipment is imported. Therefore, in the future design of food packaging machinery, attention should be paid to improving the automation level of equipment and fully applying it in the mechanical structure of equipment. Advanced control and servo drive technology integrate digital technology into the R&D and manufacturing process of equipment to achieve complete automation, high efficiency, energy saving and greening of equipment.
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